Music STUDY GUIDE
Study-aids are listed after requirements
Get worksheets at usscouts.org
Get worksheets at usscouts.org
- Sing or play a simple song or hymn chosen by your counselor using good technique, phrasing, tone, rhythm, and dynamics. Read all the signs and terms of the score.
good technique: the way you are supposed to play or perform the music
phrasing: performing parts of the music as if it were a phrase being spoken; taking a breath at the right time, etc.
tone: the pitch of the note.
rhythm: staying on a steady beat
dynamics: being loud and soft as appropriate
technique phrasing tone rhythm dynamics
For music lessons: an e-book which you can read at read.amazon.com (for usually $0-3)
or a google search, such as "learn how to sing", or a search at ehow.com. For example: Free voice lessons.
- Name the five general groups of musical instruments. Create an illustration that shows how tones are generated and how instruments produce sound.
"Musical instruments are frequently classified by the way they generate sound:
Woodwind instruments generate a sound when a column of air is made to vibrate inside them. The frequency of the wave generated is related to the length of the column of air and the shape of the instrument, while the tone quality of the sound generated is affected by the construction of the instrument and method of tone production. Vibrations are created by blowing air across a single reed, double reed or across a sharp-edged hole opening at or near the end of the instrument. The clarinet and saxophone families are examples of single reed woodwinds. The oboe and bassoon are examples of double reed woodwinds. Flutes produce sound when air is blown across the embouchure hole.
Brasswind instruments generate sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips which are “buzzed” in the instrument’s mouthpiece. There are several factors involved in producing different pitches on a brass instrument. One is alteration of the player's lip tension (or embouchure), and another is air flow. Also, slides or valves are used to change the length of the tubing, thus changing the harmonic series presented by the instrument to the player. There are two different kinds of brass: low and high. The tuba, baritone and trombone are examples of low brass. The trumpet and French horn are examples of high brass.
Percussion instruments generate sound, with or without a definite pitch, when hit with an implement, shaken, rubbed, scraped, or by any other action which sets the object into vibration. The shape and material of the part of the instrument to be struck and the shape of the resonating cavity, if any, determine the sound of the instrument. The term usually applies to an object used in a rhythmic context or with musical intent. Examples of definite pitch percussion are chimes, glockenspiel, handbells, marimba, steelpan, gong, timpani and xylophone. Examples of indefinite pitch percussion are bass drum, castanet, cymbal, slapstick, snare drum, tom-tom drum and tam-tam.
String instruments generate a sound when a string is plucked, strummed, slapped, etc. The frequency of the wave generated (and therefore the note produced) usually depends on the length of the vibrating portion of the string, the diameter of the string, the tension of the string, and the point at which the string is excited. The tone quality varies according to the construction of the resonating cavity (size, shape and wood used), the material the string is made of, how the string is excited into motion, and the expertise of the musician. The guitar, violin, mandolin, ukulele, harp, autoharp, harpsichord and piano are examples of string instruments.
Electronic instruments generate sound through electronic means. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical audio signal that ultimately drives a loudspeaker. They can mimic all of the other instruments or create very unique sounds. The digital piano, electronic keyboard, organ, analog synthesizer, digital synthesizer, MIDI instruments (Musical Instrument Digital Interface), wind synthesizer, digital drums and virtual musical instruments are examples of electronic instruments."
"how tones are generated"
editor's note: specifically these 2 images represent the movement of a guitar, piano, or violin string:
As the number of waves (frequency) increase on the string, the sound's pitch gets higher (the note becomes a higher note).
"Create an illustration that shows how tones are generated and how instruments produce sound."
"How do String Instruments make sound?
Stringed instruments are played by pressing the fingers down on the strings. This pressure changes the strings' length, causing them to vibrate at different frequencies and making different sounds. Shortening a string makes it sound higher. Strings produce different sounds depending on their thickness."
editor's note: An illustration should show different lengths of strings, such as piano strings, or how the length changes when placing a finger on it, like what happens with a guitar or violin.
An image of different tones, with the bottom line representing a higher note (or shortened string):
different_frequencies.svg taken from wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound
Therefore, an illustration might might show different lengths of strings, with the smaller string producing the sound wave with greater frequency, or in other words, with more wavelengths (with more bumps in it -- a higher note). You may want to add how the thickness of the string makes an effect. Here is a video showing the vibration of violin and guitar strings, with thicker strings producing lower notes (lower frequencies):
https://youtube.com/embed/9L9AOPxhZwY?rel=0 vibrations of strings on a digital camera
red and blue diagram of air pressure waves in a pipe: acs.psu.edu/drussell/Demos/StandingWaves/StandingWaves.html
- Do TWO of the following:
a. Attend a live performance, or listen to three hours of recordings from any two of the following musical styles: blues, jazz, classical, country, bluegrass, ethnic, gospel, musical theater, opera. Describe the sound of the music and the instruments used. Identify the composers or songwriters, the performers, and the titles of the pieces you heard. If it was a live performance, describe the setting and the reaction of the audience. Discuss your thoughts about the music.
Classical music: Rise of the Masters, 100 Supreme Classical Masterpieces from Amazon.com, $2-3
You can also search for types of music at commons.wikimedia.org by including the term "ogg" which is a type of music file similar to an "mp3". Here is a search for "jazz ogg" , for jazz music.
b. Interview an adult member of your family about music. Find out what the most popular music was when he or she was your age. Find out what his or her favorite music is now, and listen to three favorite tunes with him or her. How do those favorites sound to you? Had you ever heard any of them? Play three of your favorite songs for your relative, and explain why you like these songs. Ask what he or she thinks of your favorite music.
c. Serve for six months as a member of a school band, choir, or other local musical group; or perform as a soloist in public six times.
d. List five people who are important in the history of American music and explain to your counselor why they continue to be influential. Include at least one composer, one performer, one innovator, and one person born more than 100 years ago.
- Do ONE of the following:
a. Teach three songs to a group of people. Lead them in singing the songs, using proper hand motions.
b. Compose and write the score for a piece of music of 12 measures or more, and play this music on an instrument.
c. Make a traditional instrument and learn to play it.
- Define for your counselor intellectual property (IP). Explain how to properly obtain and share recorded music.
definition of intellectual property:
"Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce." source: http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/en/
obtain and share recorded music:
Music recordings are protected by copyright law. It is illegal to share copyrighted music. Some exceptions include
--public domain music
--permission is already granted from the copyright holder to share the music
For legally-free music sources: commons.wikimedia.org creativecommons.org
You can also search at wikipedia.org for free recordings such as the Four Seasons.
for more information: guides.lib.umich.edu/permissions/music
To share copyrighted music, you can purchase an additional copy as a gift (for example, from amazon.com/mp3) or you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holder to share it. You can write a letter to the recording company and ask for permission.